"To live a longer and better life is
to reduce the likelihood of developing heart disease and the average life expectancy of every American would increase
by an estimated ten years."
"The underlying cause of heart disease
– a decrease in blood flow to the heart and an increase in inflammation in the arteries. These both result from an increased
production of “bad” eicosanoids."
"In fact, 50 percent of the people who
are hospitalized with heart attacks have normal cholesterol levels, and 25 percent of people who develop premature heart disease
have no traditional risk factors at all."
"...The likelihood of future heart attacks
has everything to do with excess levels of “bad” eicosanoids – exactly the hormones that can be modified
by my dietary recommendations.
A heart attack is simply the death of
muscle cells in the heart from a lack of oxygen. This occurs when blood flow can’t reach the heart because of a
blockage or clot in the arteries
Causes of Heart Attacks
1. Clot formation: This occurs when a
clot in the arteries caused by a clumping of blood platelets.
2. Plaque instability: Inflammation causes
an unstable plaque to break off and block the blood flow in the artery.
3. Vasospasm: Sometimes a spasm in the artery
blocks the flow to the heart.
4. Electrical chaos (sudden death): The heart goes into electrical chaos and stops
its synchronized beating on its own.
Recently has shown that elevated insulin
puts one at a increased risk of heart disease. The reason is being that excess insulin causes body to overproduce
“bad” eicosanoids altering the good eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) vs bad arachidonic acid (AA) ratio
of 1:6. It is noted that proper diet and or supplements (containing omega 3 and omega 6 in right balance) can restrict
the excess formation of “bad” eicosanoids.
"This unique test measures the ratio
of arachidonic acid (AA) to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in plasma. This ratio of the principle omega-3 and
omega-6 fatty acids is a measure of the body's eicosanoid balance. Balancing the eicosanoids in the body is an excellent way
for managing heart disease and other chronic and inflammatory processes.
Recently, a great deal of interest has been paid to the ratio of the fatty acids arachidonic acid (AA) to eicosapentaenoic
acid (EPA). According to Dr. Barry Sears, author of Toxic Fat: When Good Fat Turns Bad, a lower AA/EPA ratio indicates
a better balance of "good" and "bad" eicosanoids in your body. An AA/EPA ratio of less than 3 but not less than 1.5 is considered
to be ideal. It is no longer considered "well" to have a ratio greater than 10. Anything exceeding 15 means a high level of
inflammation in the blood (Toxic Fat Syndrome) and requires immediate dietary attention.
AA/EPA Ratio features:
- True quantitative analysis of fatty acids
- Included with the 0041 Fatty Acids - Plasma profile and 0241 Bloodspot Fatty Acid profile
Metametrix clinical laboratory
AA/EPA Ratio Profile -
A Measure of “Silent”
The Importance of TG/HDL Ratio
It indicates the type of LDL
particle and insulin level in the body.
a) Ratio is less than 2 indicates
predominantly harmless large, fluffy LDL particles.
b) Ratio is greater than 4 indicates a
lot of small, dense LDL particles that can accelerate the development of atherosclerotic plaques regardless of your total
c) A high TG/HDL ratio is a surrogate
marker for elevated insulin.
How to Improve TG/HDL Ratio
First: To decrease insulin levels.
Excess insulin has been shown to increase triglyceride levels.
Second: To supplement diet with high-dose,
ultra refined-grade fish oils.*
The fastest and most effective way is
to do both simultaneously.
A study conducted by Gerald Reaven
Ppatients were put on diets consisting
of the same number of calories but differing in their protein-to-carbohydrate ratio.
When the group consumed a high-carbohydrate
diet, they had a much higher TG/HDL ratio than when they switched to a lower-carbohydrate diet. These changes occurred within
four weeks of each dietary change.
Bruce Holub at the University of Guelph
in Canada has shown that postmenopausal women can rapidly reduce TG/HDL ratio by diets with 3.5 grams of ultra refined-grade
fish oil per day.
Copenhagen Male Study: The effect of
this ratio on the long-term development of heart disease. The researchers tracked healthy patients who had either a low TG/HDL
ratio (less than 1.7) or a high TG/HDL ratio (greater than 6).
The patients with the low TG/HDL ratio
who smoked, didn’t exercise, had hypertension, and had elevated levels of LDL cholesterol had a much lower risk of developing
heart disease than those who had a far better lifestyle but a higher TG/HDL ratio.
This indicates that lower TG/HDL
ratio should be goal to reduce heart disease.Life style modification helps to lower
1970s: Russell Ross of the University
of Washington pointed out that atherosclerosis was an inflammatory disease (like Alzheimer’s disease).
In 1995, statins were found to be far
more effective at preventing heart attacks than previous cholesterol-lowering drugs.
Thee statins lower cholesterol levels
and also powerful anti-inflammatory agents. The researchers at the Harvard Medical School found that pro-inflammatory C-reactive
proteins were highly predictive markers for an increased risk of heart disease.
They and other researchers found that
statins lowered the C-reactive proteins level. The greatest impact was noted in patients with highest levels of C-reactive
protein. Aspirin also reduces inflammation and thus reduce heart attacks. Aspirin is cheaper and more effective.
Disease and Inflammation
Reduction of inflammation reduces
our death rate from heart attacks.
1970s epidemiological studies revealed
that Eskimos in Greenland had virtually no heart disease even though they consumed a high-fat diet.
Additional studies suggested that more fish consumption lead to the lower risk of dying from heart disease.
The DART study showed that eating one
serving of fish per week decreased heart attacks by 29 percent in patients who had had a previous heart attack.
It was the fish oil in the fish that
conferred these protective benefits,to lesser extent, people who eat fish have healthier lifestyles in general.
GISSI trial: Patients with heart disease
who took about 1 gram per day of ultra refined-grade long-chain omega-3 fatty acids had a 45 percent reduction in their risk
of having a sudden fatal heart attack, a 30 percent reduction in their total risk of cardiovascular mortality, and a 20 percent
reduction in overall mortality.
Vitamin E given by itself or in combination
with fish oil had no benefits.
The Lyon Diet Heart Study: Survivors
of heart attacks were split into two groups. "One group was put on a diet that followed the American Heart Association recommendations
(basically the USDA Food Pyramid), and the second group was put on a Mediterranean-type diet (rich in fruits, vegetables,
and fish; supplemented with short-chain omega-3 fatty acids; and very low in omega-6).
At the end of four years, the two groups
had the same cholesterol levels. There was, however, a more than 70 percent reduction in both fatal and nonfatal heart attacks
in the group on the Mediterranean diet compared with the control group, who were allowed to eat hefty amounts of omega-6 fatty
This study was very damaging for
the cholesterol theory of heart disease."
However, there are many other studies indicating definite relationship
between cholesterol and coronary artery disease. CAD is multi-factorial disease.
group on the Mediterranean diet experienced no sudden deaths (an electrical chaos in the heart, which makes it stop beating
in rhythm and is the primary cause of cardiovascular mortality).
primary difference between the two groups was the ratio of the arachidonic acid to eicosapentaenoic acid in the blood. The
AA/EPA ratio of the individuals in the active group was 6.1, compared with 9.0 in the group following the American Heart Association
a 30 percent reduction in the AA/EPA ratio resulted in a greater than 70 percent reduction in fatal and nonfatal heart attacks,
despite the fact that the TG/HDL ratio didn’t change for either group.
AA/EPA ratio is by far the most powerful predictor of future heart disease.
The group on the Mediterranean diet never
reached an AA/EPA ratio of 1.5, which is similar to that found in the Japanese, who have the lowest rates of heart disease
in the world.
Also, the TG/HDL ratio was still elevated
in both groups in the study, and this indicates that insulin levels hadn’t been lowered and that both groups were still
eating diets too rich in carbohydrates.
"My dietary program represents a considerable
improvement over the intervention diets used in both the GISSI study and the Lyon Diet Heart. Where the GISSI study provided
a little less than 1 gram of pharmaceutical-grade fish oil, I recommend five times as much. (You need at least 3 to 4 grams
of ultra refined long-chain omega-3 fatty acids per day to lower triglycerides and thus lower the TG/HDL ratio.) While the
Lyon Diet Heart Study recommended eating more fruits, I recommend 10 to 15 servings of fruits and vegetables per day.
Compared with the Lyon Diet Heart Study,
my dietary program would have lowered the TG/HDL ratio through improved insulin control (which reduces the production of “bad”
eicosanoids) and would have provided greater eicosanoid control with the increased intake of ultra refined-grade fish oil.
These differences would have been reflected in the blood by the reduction of the TG/HDL and AA/EPA ratios. On the basis of
all the available evidence we have from prospective studies, achieving the clinical goals that define the Omega Rx Zone would
bring your risk of heart disease down to almost zero."
Excerpted from The Omega RX Zone:
The Miracle of the New High-Dose Fish Oil by Dr. Barry Sears. Copyright © by Dr. Barry Sears.
*These statements have not been evaluated
by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. As with
any natural product, individual results will vary.
For more information about Dr. Barry
Sears, his incredible fish oil supplements, or the popular Zone Diet, please visit www.zoneliving.com.
Dr. Barry Sears is a leader in the field of dietary control of hormonal response. A former research scientist at
the Boston University School of Medicine and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dr. Sears has dedicated his efforts
over the past 25 years to the study of lipids and their inflammatory role in the development of chronic disease. He holds
13 U.S. patents in the areas of intravenous drug delivery systems and hormonal regulation for the treatment of cardiovascular
Measuring Your Future Wellness
Measuring Your Future Wellness
We all desire to have a clinical marker of our future state of wellness. It is my opinion that the AA/EPA
ratio in the blood is the best marker of that elusive goal because it measures the level of cellular inflammation in the body.
What is Cellular Inflammation?
Cellular inflammation is the type of inflammation that is below the perception of pain. What it does is to
disrupt hormonal signaling at the cellular levels that leads to increased fat accumulation, acceleration of the development
of chronic disease, and decreased physical performance. You can’t feel cellular inflammation, but you can measure it.
The only way to measure cellular inflammation is by testing the ratio of two essential fatty acids (AA and EPA) in your blood.
What is the AA/EPA Ratio?
The AA/EPA ratio is an indication of the levels of cellular inflammation in your body. High levels of cellular
inflammation do not mean you have a disease state, but it does indicate that you are not as well as you could be. Your future
state of wellness can be determined by the levels of cellular inflammation in the blood as shown below.
||Future state of wellness|
|1.5 to 3
|3 to 6
|7 to 15
|> than 15
The higher your levels of cellular inflammation, the more likely the future development of chronic disease
will be accelerated. A recent study from Italy has demonstrated that the AA/EPA ratio is always greater than 15 in patients
with chronic diseases (1).
Dietary Methods to Improve the AA/EPA Ratio
There are no drugs that can change the AA/EPA ratio. This is because AA/EPA ratio is a consequence of the
diet. One method of lowering the AA/EPA ratio is to increase the intake of high-purity omega-3 fatty acid concentrates rich
in EPA. This will increase the EPA content in the blood (2). This represents the fastest way to reduce the AA/EPA ratio. However,
the best long-term method is to reduce the AA levels in the blood. This is best achieved by following a strict anti-inflammatory
diet, such as the Zone diet (3-5). The Zone diet was designed to reduce elevated levels of both insulin and omega-6 fatty
acids so that the production of AA is significantly reduced. The combination of an anti-inflammatory diet coupled with high-purity
omega-3 concentrations represents the most powerful dietary approach to reach and maintain a low level of cellular inflammation
for a lifetime.
How much EPA and DHA do I have to take to reduce the AA/EPA ratio?
A recent dose-response study in healthy women who had a high risk for potential breast cancer has provided
supplementation guidelines for reduction of the AA/EPA ratio (5).
|Grams of EPA and DHA supplemented per day
This data indicates that a daily dosage of EPA and DHA of 2.5 grams was sufficient to bring the AA/EPA ratio
into the desired range for excellent wellness for these healthy individuals. This level of EPA and DHA recommendation correlates
well with an Italian study that demonstrated in patients with various chronic diseases having an elevated AA/EPA ratio (>15)
lowered their elevated AA/EPA ratio to approximately 5 with daily supplementation of 2.5 grams of EPA and DHA (1). This is
also indicative that a person with an existing chronic disease may need greater amounts of EPA and DHA to get them into an
excellent wellness range compared to a healthy individual.
However, these are only general guidelines for daily EPA and DHA supplementation. The best indication of the
amount of the amount of EPA and DHA required to optimize the AA/EPA ratio for an individual is best determined with blood
testing every six to twelve months.
The benefits of reduction of the AA/EPA ratio.
The JELIS study was one of the largest cardiovascular studies ever done using more than 18,000 subjects with
elevated cholesterol levels. When these subjects were given high doses of EPA (1.8 grams of EPA per day), their average AA/EPA
ratio decreased from 1.6 to 0.8. This reduction in the AA/EPA ratio was associated with an additional 19% reduction in cardiovascular
events during the next four and half years (7).
Until there is more data, I do not believe it prudent to reduce the AA/EPA ratio to less than 1.5 even through
significant cardiovascular benefits do occur at lower AA/EPA ratios in patients with elevated cholesterol levels as demonstrated
in the JELIS study.
- Rizzo AM, Montorfano G, Negroni M, Adorni L, Berselli P, Corsetto P, Wahle K, and Berra B. “A rapid method for determining
arachidonic:eicosapentaenoic acid ratios in whole blood lipids: correlation with erythrocyte membrane ratios and validation
in a large Italian population of various ages and pathologies.” Lipids in Health and Disease 9:7 (2010)
- Sears B. The OmegaRx Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (2002)
- Sears B. The Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1995)
- Sears B. The Anti-Inflammation Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (2005)
- Sears B. Toxic Fat. Thomas Nelson. Nashville, TN (2008)
- Yee LD, Lester JL, Cole RM, Richardson JR, Hsu JC, Li Y, Lehman A, Belury MA, and Clinton SK. “Omega-3 fatty acid
supplements in women at high risk of breast cancer have dose-dependent effects on breast adipose tissue fatty acid composition.”
Am J Clin Nutr 91: 1185-1194 (2010)
- Yokoyama M, Origasa H, Matsuzaki M, Matsuzawa Y, Saito Y, Ishikawa Y, Oikawa S, Sasaki J, Hishida H, Itakura H, Kita T,
Kitabatake A, Nakaya N, Sakata T, Shimada K, and Shirato K. “Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on major coronary events
in hypercholesterolaemic patients (JELIS): a randomised open-label, blinded endpoint analysis.” Lancet 369: 1090-1098
Omega 3 Profile +
(room 2 of 6)
The Omega 3 Profile+ is a complete essential fatty acid panel. While
analyzing 35 unique essential fatty acids (EFAs), the Omega 3 Profile+ centers on seven simple, but critical omega-3 measures:
Omega 3 Score (heart disease risk assessment)
Serum AA/EPA Ratio (inflammation marker)
GLA (immune system)
ALA (cardiovascular health)
Arachidonic Acid or AA (inflammation)
DHA Score (brain function)
Omega 3 Score (heart disease risk assessment)
The Omega 3 Score identifies your risk for heart disease. Studies
published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition and the American Journal of Epidemiology used this test in their research
on heart disease. These studies showed that you are 70% less likely to die of
a heart attack and 32% less likely to develop heart disease if you have an Omega 3 Score of 7.6 or greater.
Serum AA/EPA Ratio (inflammation indicator)
The serum phospholipid AA/EPA ratio, on the other hand, is an excellent marker for silent inflammation. Some people are not as familiar with inflammation as they are the specific diseases
that can result from having inflammation. Some of the most common inflammatory
diseases include: arthritis, diabetes, ADD, Alzheimer’s, and heart disease.
The serum AA/EPA test
measures the ratio of arachidonic acid or “AA” (omega 6’s) to eicosa pentaenoic acid or “EPA” (omega 3’s). The
higher the ratio, the more inflammation is present in your body. Silent inflammation
can go undetected for years and it affects the brain, heart, and immune function.
Research has shown the
American average serum AA/EPA ratio to be 11 while people with chronic illness and disease typically have scores above 15. Optimum ratios are usually around 1 to 1.5.
Improving your scores, Reducing your risk
The most exciting thing about the Omega 3 Score and serum AA/EPA ratio is that both can be improved through
nutrition and both are improved in the same way. The easiest way to improve these
scores and reduce your risk of developing inflammation and heart disease is to increase your level of omega 3’s.
Omega 3’s are not produced by the body so your only options are to supplement your diet with omega
3’s or to change your diet to include more fish rich in omega 3’s (like salmon).
At YFH, we do not sell nutritional supplements or recommend specific brands—there is no conflict of interest.
Omega 3 Score
Serum AA/EPA Ratio
1.0 to 1.5
Increasing level of omega 3’s (via
fish oil or DHA)
Increasing level of omega 3’s (via fish oil or DHA)
Since YFH began offering this test, our clients have shown dramatic improvements. In addition to reducing their risk for heart disease, our clients have noted significant improvements in
degenerative diseases like Cancer, Arthritis, Diabetes, Multiple Sclerosis, and Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and also
a myriad of other frustrating conditions like psoriasis, fertility issues, weight control and hormone imbalance.
Lastly, the Omega 3 Profile +’s requirements are unique and therefore,
it is separate from all of our other services.