Vitamins C, D, K and omega 3

CAD diet and proof of arrest and reversal 1
CAD and proof of arrest and reversal 2
CAD and proof of arrest and reversal 3.
CAD and proof of arrest and reversal 4.
CAD and Mr. Singh
CAD reversal diet programs
CAD and triglyceride
CAD and TG/HDL ratio
CAD videos 1
CAD video 2
CAD nitric oxide, l-argenine & l-citrulline
CAD nitric oxide continuation
Vitamins C, D, K and omega 3
CAD and vitamin E
CAD and vitamin K2
CAD and Serrapeptase and nattokinase
CAD and LDL, HDL and triglyceride
Natural antiinflammatories
CAD and plaque stabiliazition
Milk review
Milk and cancer
Food lowers high BP
Heart disease and gene
CAD and natural antihypertensives


VITAMINS B6, C, D, E, folic acid, & alpha lipoic acid.

Low Vitamin B6 Linked to Inflammation

Chronic Inflammation Tied to Low Blood Levels of Vitamin B6
WebMD Health News

human heart

June 19, 2012 -- Low levels of vitamin B6 may be a key factor involved with chronic inflammation in the body. But don't go rushing to the supplement aisle just yet.

A new study shows a strong association between chronic inflammation and the essential vitamin found in foods such as lean meats, legumes, and vegetables.

Researchers found that people with the lowest levels of vitamin B6 in their blood had the highest levels of chronic inflammation, based on a wide variety of indicators. Those with the most vitamin B6 circulating in the bloodstream were also the least likely to have indicators of inflammation.

Temporary inflammation, such as redness and swelling after an injury, is generally a sign that the immune system is actively fighting infection.

But chronic inflammation is an emerging risk factor for a wide range of health problems, including heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes.

Low Vitamin B6 Linked to Inflammation

In the study, published in the Journal of Nutrition, researchers compared blood levels of vitamin B6 and 13 different indicators of inflammation in 2,229 adults enrolled in the Framingham Offspring study.

Although previous studies have linked low blood levels of vitamin B6 with various signs of inflammation, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), researchers say this is the first large-scale study to look at the relationship between the vitamin and a variety of inflammation indicators.

The results showed that people with the highest overall inflammation score based on the 13 different indicators had the lowest blood levels of vitamin B6.

The reverse was also true. Those who had the highest blood levels of vitamin B6 had the lowest levels of chronic inflammation.

Researcher Lydia Sakakeeny, PhD, who conducted the study while a doctoral student at Tufts University, says the findings give researchers a better idea of what is going on in the body with chronic inflammation. But it's much too early to say simply whether getting more vitamin B6 through food or supplements is enough to fight inflammation.

"The next step is determining the mechanism of the relationship between B6 and inflammation," she tells WebMD. "From there, it then may lead to new treatments or dietary recommendations."

Vitamin B6: Don't Get Too Much of a Good Thing

Experts say until more research confirms the role of vitamin B6 in chronic inflammation, people should focus on including sources of the vitamin in their diet to reap the other proven benefits of the nutrient, rather than taking a supplement.

"When research comes out like this, people often run to the supplement store rather than the supermarket," says registered dietician Joan Salge Blake, a spokeswoman for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

"Vitamin B6 is one of those nutrients that is present robustly in lean chicken breast and hamburger, fish, in very affordable legumes and pinto beans, and of course beautiful vegetables like red peppers and potatoes," Salge Blake tells WebMD.

Blake says vitamin B6 is vital to more than 100 enzyme processes in the body, mostly those involving the metabolism of protein.

But there can be too much of a good thing. Studies have shown taking large amounts of vitamin B6 (more than 500 mg a day) can cause nerve damage, difficulty walking, or tingling.

"Some is good. More is not better," says Salge Blake. "Just having a well-balanced diet will meet your needs."

When the body turns food into energy by burning glucose (oxidation) and also produced a toxic products - free radicals (oxygen radicals, oxidative stress), some time in excess, and can damage cells.
Oxidation is a chemical reaction.
Oxygen has two electrons particles and are stable as a pair. During oxidation, one electron breaks free and form free radical, destabilizing the oxygen molecule.

Free radicals are atoms, molecules or ions containing the unpaired electrons (broken from the pair) on an open shell (thatis it is not completely filled with electrons), making them unstable and chemically highly reactive.

Free radicals in an attempt to stabilize, attack another structure to get an electron from them. As a result,the free radical destroy the structre. This results in more cell damage and creation of more free radicals, creating chain reactions of tissue destruction cycle, leading to diseases.

C, E, K Vitamins, alpha lipoic acid, NO glutathione, melatonin and melatonin are antioxidants..
An antioxidant is a molecule capable of preventing oxidation of another molecules.

Antioxidants stop the chain reactions by removing free radical, and stopping oxidation reactions. Antioxidants do this by being reducing agents that is by oxidized themselves

Enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and various peroxidase help antioxidants. Inhibition of these enzymes may lead to free radical (oxidative stress) as well.

Beside medicinal use, antioxidants are also used for food preservation, cosmetics, degradation of gasoline and rubber.

i.Antioxidants stops harmful effects of free radicals.


The antioxidant stabilizes and protect the NO as it is produced.
VITAMIN C, HEART & BLOOD VESSELS (Cardiovascular disorders=CVD)
Food sources:
Fruits: Orange, lemons, grapefruit, watermelon, papaya, strawberries, cantaloupe, mango, pineapple, raspberries and cherries.
Vegetables:Green leafy vegetables, tomatoes, broccoli, green and red peppers, cauliflower and cabbage.

Dietary recommendations of Ascorbic acid

Vitamin C 100 mg/day is found to be sufficient to saturate the body in healthy person. A dietary intake of 100 mg/day vitamin reduced incidence of mortality from heart diseases, stroke and cancer [15].

Vitamin C is reduced b stress, smoking, alcoholism, fever, viral infections.


The physiological functions dependents on the oxide-reduction properties .

IT synthesizes:


Carnitine and

Neurotransmitters [21].

Accelerates hydroxylation reactions by enzymes hydroxylase and oxygenase.

Essential to maintain the enzyme prolyl and lysyl hydroxylase in an active form.

Proline and lysine hydroxilation by the enzyme prolyl hydroxylase using ascorbic acid as co-factor.

Deficiency reduces hydroxylation of proline and lysine, thus collagen synthesis.

Essential for the synthesis of muscle carnitine (β-hydroxy butyric acid). [22]. Carnitine transports and transfers fatty acids into mitochondria and used for energy production.

A co-factor for the enzyme dopamine-β-hydroxylase, which converts neurotransmitter dopamine to norepinephrine.

Helps hormones oxytocin, vasopressin, cholecystokinin and alpha-melanotripin [23] activities.

Transforms cholesterol to bile acids as it modulates the microsomal 7 α-hydroxylation, the rate limiting reaction of cholesterol catabolism in liver. If deficient , results in an accumulation of cholesterol in liver, hypercholesterolemia, and cholesterol gall stones formation [24].

Ascorbic acid is known to enhance the availability and absorption of iron from non-heme iron sources [25]. Ascorbic acid supplementation is found to facilitate the dietary absorption of iron

Ascorbic acid in health and disease

Ascorbic acid and common cold

The role of oral vitamin C in the prevention and treatment of colds remains controversial despite many controlled trials. Several clinical trails with varying doses of ascorbic acid showed that ascorbic acid does not have significant prophylactic effect, but reduced the severity and duration of symptoms of cold during the period of infection.

Ascorbic acid and wound healing

Ascorbic acid plays a critical role in wound repair and healing/regeneration process as it stimulates collagen synthesis.

Ascorbic acid and atherosclerosis

Variable results were noted: beneficial, not beneficial and no effect on coronary heart disease. But there is no study is noted with high dose such 3000 mgm of vitamin C all studies were 500 mgm or less.

As opposed to Pauling and Cameron, Mayo clinic studies on cancer patients showed no significant differences between vitamin C and placebo groups in regard to survival time [63]. ].

Many studies were carried out to find out the vitamin C association with breast, esophageal, lung, gastric, pancreatic, colorectal, prostate, cervical and ovarian cancer etc. and found to be inconclusive except gastric cancer [84].

Agus et al [98] NOTED that the tumor cells contain large amounts of vitamin C, although the role of it is not known.

It is speculated that high levels may interfere with chemotherapy or radiation therapy as these modalities induce cell death by oxidative mechanism.

Recently, it has been suggested that ascorbic acid may enhance mutagenesis and risk of cancer.

Many health benefits have been attributed to ascorbic acid namely antioxidant, anti-atherogenic and anti-carcinogenic activity.

Lately some of these beneficial effects of ascorbic acid are contradicted.

Current data suggestbthat it protects against atherogenesis by inhibiting LDL oxidation.

Controversy 1
Many of Pauling's recommendations of high dose vitamin C for many diseases are controversial. However, his recommendation vitamin C for heart disease seems quite logical. He recommended vitamin C and lysine for CVD, both in very high doses.

Rationale of using vitamin C for CVD

Effects of vitamin C on:


b)Cholesterol and Lipoprotein (a), Lp(a)


Collagen is protein and forms into very strong collagen fibers which provide strength and stability to blood vessels walls and all other tissues. Vitamin C is required for productiotn, repair and maintenance of strong collagen tissues. Collagen is destroyed during the process.

Continued supply of vitamin C is absolutely essential to maintain body tissues normal. Deficiency of vitamin C causes damage to the vessel walls, specially heart and leads to plaques formation and if severe, leads to scurvy. Coronary vessels are continuously subject to heart's contraction resulting in trauma, and wall break down, repair does not occur and lead to plaque formation. (1-8)

Vitamin C, needs Lysine and proline, protein amino acids. They are building blocks to form collagen

In absence of adequate vitamin C, not required in formation of collagen:

a) Lysine becomes free and attach to cholesterol (lipoprotein(a)) in circulation and attaches to the exposed damaged collagen.

b) Free proline attches itself directly to damaged collagen.This process, ultimately lead to plaque formation.

Also hypothesis:

a) The body manufactures more cholesterol (Lp(a)),when vitamin C level is low and vice versa.

b) As vitamin C level is restored, this halts or slows the disease process, and built up plaques are being removed, more rapid if lysine is taken with vitamin C.

Lysine attaches and then loosen the lipoprotein Lp(a) in existing plaque deposits and are removed

Pauling recommended dose of vitamin C{

Preventive dose: 3000mg or more per day.

Treatment dose: Higher dose of both Vitamin C and lysine.

Low doses are ineffective.

"... in patients with a history of atherosclerosis, most of whom were on clofibrate and/or anticoagulants, the serum-cholesterol increased in the weeks when vitamin-C supplements were given. It is suggested that this rise in serum-cholesterol is caused by mobilization of the arterial cholesterol."3

"Vitamin C concentrations are lower in intermittent claudication  patients in association with higher CRP levels and severity of PAD. Future studies attempting to relate vitamin C levels to disease occurrence should include in their analysis an inflammatory marker such as CRP". 4

one tablet of 500 mgm vitamin C = 5 x 8 ounce glass of orange juice.


1. Ronald L. Hoffman, M.D., C.N.S.

Vitamin C / atherosclerosis scare

A Personal Viewpoint, 8 references are cited.

3. Constance R. Spittle


Volume 298, Issue 7737, 11 December 1971, Pages 1280-1281
Originally published as Volume 2, Issue 7737

4. Michel Langlois,et al. Serum Vitamin C Concentration Is Low in Peripheral Arterial Disease and Is Associated With Inflammation and Severity of Atherosclerosis Circulation. 2001;103:1863-1868
doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.103.14.1863


Present status vitamin D and CAD

"Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to an increased risk of hypertension, diabetes, congestive heart failure, peripheral arterial disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, and related mortality, even after adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors."1

Vitamin D deficiency may also be associated with many vascular function, including atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.1


"I want to alert readers to this month's groundbreaking study about atherosclerosis and vitamin D. Atherosclerosis is the disease process that leads to heart attacks and strokes. Dr. Targher and his group in Italy measured the amount of atherosclerotic plaque (carotid artery intimal thickness) and the vitamin D levels of 390 diabetic patients. The authors found low vitamin D blood levels were an independent and strong predictor of atherosclerosis. Professor Robert Scragg of the University of Auckland was right 16 years ago, when he discovered that low vitamin D levels are associated with heart attacks."3


Racial difference of level of vitamin D and supplementation.

Lower levels of vitamin D may not indicate deficiency to the same extent as in whites and one should be careful in supplementing vitamin D in black patients....

Blacks generally have lower vitamin D levels than whites.

It was noted that higher circulating levels of vitamin D in blacks were associated with more calcium in the artery walls as opposed what occur in white patients. It is thought that the normal range of vitamin D may be different between blacks and whites.

Black and white patients have different risk for bone and heart disease.One should not assume that the effects of vitamin D supplementation will be the same between the black and white races.4


Vitamin D in atherosclerosis, vascular disease, and endothelial function.Curr Drug Targets. 2011 Jan;12(1):54-60.

2P.E. Norman, J.T. Powell. Vitamin D, Shedding Light on the Development of Disease in Peripheral Arteries. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 2005; 25: 39-46

3. Vitamin D, Atherosclerosis, and Influenza

3. ScienceDaily (Mar. 15, 2010)Vitamin D Levels Have Different Effects On Atherosclerosis in Blacks and Whites, Study Finds





"This study shows that high dietary menaquinone intake, but probably not phylloquinone, is associated with reduced coronary calcification. Adequate menaquinone intakes could therefore be important to prevent cardiovascular disease."1

1. Beulens JW, Bots ML, Atsma F, Bartelink ML, Prokop M, Geleijnse JM, Witteman JC, Grobbee DE, van der Schouw YT.

High dietary menaquinone intake is associated with reduced coronary calcification.
Atherosclerosis. 2009 Apr;203(2):489-93. Epub 2008 Jul 19.

There are three forms of vitamin K.

K1 (phylloquinone or phytonadione)

K2 (menaquinone or or MKs).

K3 (menadione) is a potent synthetic (man-made) form and not used in humans.

K2 is thought to prevent and reduce coronary calcification but K1 does not, noted in a studies.1, 2

Vitamin K activates proteins such as matrix Gla-protein (MGP) via carboxylation . These proteins have been shown to inhibit vascular calcification.
The researchers here examined whether dietary intake of phylloquinone (K1) and menaquinone (K2) were related to aortic calcification and coronary heart or artery disease (CHD or CAD).
Their finding suggest a protective effect of menaquinone (K2) intake against CHD. K2 inhibited arterial calcification and contributed to CHD prevention.
The study also showed that people who consume 45 mcg of K2 daily lived seven years longer than people getting 12 mcg per day. 2
Johanna M. Geleijnse, Cees Vermeer et al. Dietary Intake of Menaquinone Is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: The Rotterdam Study. The American Society for Nutritional Sciences J. Nutr. 134:3100-3105, November 2004
Vitamin K1:

Source: in green vegetables such as kale, spinach, collard greens, broccoli, and Brussels sprouts.and Vegetable oils: Soybean oil, olive oil, and canola oil, contain smaller amounts.

K1 is found in dark green leafy vegetables, and makes up about 90 percent of the vitamin K in a typical Western diet. The following table lists some vegetable sources of K1 that you should consider eating frequently:

Food Vitamin K*
Raw parsely 9113mcg
Raw chard swiss 8738mcg
Cooked or frozen Kale 5880mcg



Spinach cooked or raw



Mustard green raw or cooked 3900mcg+/-

Foods highest in Vitamin K (based on levels per 200-Calorie serving)

The best natural source of vitamin K2 is derived from an ancient Japanese food called Natto. Natto is made from fermented soybeans and significant amounts of vitamin K2 are produced during the fermentation process.

K1 goes directly to liver and helps in body's coagulation process.


Maintains a healthy blood clotting system,

keeps blood vessels from calcifying, and

helps bones retain calcium and develop the right crystalline structure.

K1 is often given to new born, especially premature babies to prevent any bleeding problems.

Vitamin K2


Intestinal bacterias produce this. and passes in stool.

Present in fermented foods: Cheese, curds and the Japanese food natto, a very rich source.

The fermented foods contains lactococci and proprionic acids bacteria which both produce K2.

One can also obtain daily need for K2 (about 200 micrograms) by eating 15 grams of natto daily ( half an ounce and inexpensive.

The best natural source of vitamin K2:

Ancient Japanese food Natto, made from fermented soybeans.

A significant amounts of K2 are produced during the fermentation.

Alternative to natto is curd, though is not as rich as natto.

Cooking does not affect the vitamin contents of the foods.

K2 goes straight to vessel walls, bones, and tissues other than liver.

High dietary intake of vitamin K2 is associated with reduced coronary artery calcification.

The Prospect Study:

Here 16,057 women were followed for 10 years. Researchers found that each additional 10 mcg of K2, resulted 9% fewer cardiac events and significant heart benefit. This association was noted mainly especially due to vitamin K2, subtypes MK-7, MK-8 and MK-9.

Vitamin K1 intake was in the diet results did not had cardiac beneficial effect.

How Vitamin K2 helps Heart?

Vitamin K2 is necessay for vitamin D to provide bone development by helping absorb calcium.

K2 directs the calcium to skeleton, and preventing it from being deposited in the organs, joint spaces, and arteries.

Arterial plaque contains a large part of calcium deposits leading to atherosclerosis or hardening of the arteries.

K2 activates hormone called osteocalcin, a protein produced by osteoblasts, which is needed to bind calcium into the bone matrix. Osteocalcin also to prevent calcium from depositing into arteries.

Vitamin K2 helps to produce Matrix GLA Protein (or MGP). MGP prevents blood vessels and soft tissue calcification following inflammatory reaction.

"According to Professor Cees Vermeer:

"The only mechanism for arteries to protect themselves from calcification is via the vitamin K-dependent protein MGP. MPG is the most powerful inhibitor of soft tissue calcification presently known, but non-supplemented healthy adults are insufficient in vitamin K to a level that 30 percent of their MGP is synthesized in an inactive form. So, protection against cardiovascular calcification is only 70 percent in the young, healthy population, and this figure decreases at increasing age."



Other benefits of Vitamin K:

1. Fight cancers:

People who have the highest intakes of vitamin K2, not vitamin K1, may significantly lower their risk of cancer and cancer mortality, according to results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

After analyzing data from over 24,000 participants who were followed for over 10 years, those who had the highest intakes of vitamin K2 were 14 percent less likely to develop cancer and 28 percent less likely to die of cancer compared to those with the lowest intakes.

A separate study by researchers at the Mayo Clinic also revealed impressive anti-cancer effects from vitamin K. Those with the highest dietary vitamin K intakes had a 45 percent lower risk of developing Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, a cancer of the immune system, than those with the lowest.

Prostate: reduce risk of prostate cancer by 35 percent.

Nimptsch K, Rohrmann S, Linseisen

Dietary intake of vitamin K and risk of prostate cancer in the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Heidelberg).
Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Apr;87(4):985-92.


Could This ‘Humble’ Vitamin Hinder Future Cancers?

Dr. Mercola | April 29 2010 |


Lung cancer

Yoshida T, Miyazawa K, Kasuga I, Yokoyama T, Minemura K, Ustumi K, Aoshima M, Ohyashiki K.

Apoptosis induction of vitamin K2 in lung carcinoma cell lines: the possibility of vitamin K2 therapy for lung cancer.

Int J Oncol. 2003 Sep;23(3):627-32.

Studies have linked vitamin K2 with a nearly 30 percent reduction in your risk of cancer mortality and a 14 percent lowered risk of cancer altogether.
Non Hodgkins Lymphoma.
Liver, colon, stomach, nasopharynx, and oral cancers, lung and leukemia.


2. Prevent varicose

J.Vas. Res.: 2007, 44, 444-459.


3. Prevents type 2 Diabetes

Among 38,000 adults followed for a decade, those who got the most vitamin K in their diets were about 20 percent less likely to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.

Both vitamins K1 and K2 were related to a lower diabetes risk, but the relationship was stronger with vitamin K2.

Foods Rich in This Vitamin Reduce Your Diabetes Risk by 20%

Posted By href="" this.s_oc?this.s_oc(e):true? http: default.aspx_1?;return Dr.-Mercola members>Dr. Mercola | June 19 2010 | 70,253 views

Plenty of vitamin-K-rich foods in your diet could lower diabetes risk by 20 percent by reducing systemic inflammation, thus improves ability to use insulin.

Vitamin K deficiency may interfere with insulin release and blood sugar regulation.

From Medscape Medical News. Vitamin K Supplementation May Reduce Progression of Insulin Resistance in Older Men. August 15, 2008


4 . Helps bone density

Osteoporosis Drug Fosamax is Bad for Your Heart

Posted By
Dr. Mercola | May 20 2008 |


How many people have adequate vitamin K2?

Just about zero, according to Dr. Vermeer and other experts in the field.

Circulating MGP: An indirect reliable test for measuring vitamin K, developed by Dr. Vermeer and his team will be avaiable soon.

The test should be helpfu to assess the risk for arterial calcification.

Improve Bone Density …
  • Lower Your Risk of Diabetes …

    People with the highest intakes of vitamin K from their diet had a 20 percent lower risk of diabetes compared with those with the lowest intakes, according to the latest research from University Medical Center Utrecht in the Netherlands. Past studies have also shown vitamin K to help href="" target=_blank this.s_oc?this.s_oc(e):true? http: 579145_1?;return viewarticle>reduce the progression of insulin resistance.

    For comparison's sake, in the diabetes study from the University Medical Center Utrecht in the Netherlands those who had the highest vitamin K intakes -- and therefore experienced the greatest protection against diabetes -- were consuming between 250 and 360 mcg of vitamin K daily from their diets.

    The best natural source of vitamin K2 is derived from an ancient Japanese food called Natto. Natto is made from fermented soybeans and significant amounts of vitamin K2 are produced during the fermentation process. You can find natto at some health food stores and Asian grocery stores.

    Since most Americans do not eat traditionally fermented foods like natto, adding them to your diet is a must as the health benefits are tremendous. Keep in mind you can also get vitamin K2 from other fermented food aside from natto, such as certain types of cheese, like raw curd.

    If you find yourself not consuming enough fermented foods, you will certainly want to consider taking a supplement, especially if you have osteoporosis, heart disease or risk factors for diabetes.

"Dr. Cees Vermeer, one of the world's top researchers in the field of vitamin K, nearly everyone is deficient in vitamin K -- just like most are deficient in vitamin D.

Most people get enough vitamin K from their diets to maintain adequate blood clotting, but NOT enough to offer protection against health problems like arterial calcification and cardiovascular disease."

Many people are not getting the currently recommended intakes of vitamin K, which are likely already too low to begin with. In fact, according to What We Eat In America NHANES 2001–2002, only one in four Americans are meeting the recommended levels of dietary vitamin K"" target=_blank this.s_oc?this.s_oc(e):true? http: index.html_1?;return vitamin-k what-should-you-eat nutritionsource>meeting the recommended levels of dietary vitamin K.


What We Eat In America NHANES 2001–2002:

Usual nutrient intakes from food compared to dietary nutrient intakes.

Vitamin K makes four of the 13 proteins factors needed for blood clotting cascade.

Vitamin K and building bone:

Low vitamin K have been linked with low bone density.

Supplementation with vitamin K shows improvements of bone health. (1)

Nurses' Health Study:

Women who got at least 110 micrograms of vitamin K a day had 30 percent less broke a hip than women who g0t less than that. (2)

Eating a serving of lettuce or green, leafy vegetable daily cut the risk of hip fracture in half when compared with one serving a week eating.2

The Framingham Heart Study:

A igh vitamin K intake and reduced risk of hip fracture in men and women and increased bone mineral density in women. (3, 4)

National data suggests that only about one in four Americans meets the goal for vitamin K intake from food. (5)

5. Moshfegh A, Goldman, J., Cleveland, L. . What We Eat In America. NHANES 2001–2002: Usual Nutrient Intakes from Food Compared to Dietary Intakes. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2005.

The Nutrition Source

Vitamin K


1. Weber P. Vitamin K and bone health. Nutrition. 2001; 17:880–7.

2. Feskanich D, Weber P, Willett WC, Rockett H, Booth SL, Colditz GA. Vitamin K intake and hip fractures in women: a prospective study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999; 69:74–9.

3. Booth SL, Tucker KL, Chen H, et al. Dietary vitamin K intakes are associated with hip fracture but not with bone mineral density in elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000; 71:1201–8.

4. Booth SL, Broe KE, Gagnon DR, et al. Vitamin K intake and bone mineral density in women and men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003; 77:512–6.

5. Moshfegh A, Goldman, J., Cleveland, L. . What We Eat In America. NHANES 2001–2002: Usual Nutrient Intakes from Food Compared to Dietary Reference Intakes. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2005.


Further, the Institute of Medicine's recommended daily intake of 120 micrograms for men and 90 for women are based on levels that will ensure adequate blood coagulation. But vitamin K is important for more than just blood clotting; it impacts the health of your bones, arteries and immune system as well.

Now emerging research, including the "triage theory" from Joyce McCann, PhD and Bruce Ames, PhD, suggests that these other non-clotting functions that depend on vitamin K may need higher levels than are currently recommended.

Vitamin K is a fat-soluble order for body to absorb it, one needs to eat some fat along with it.


The exact dosing is yet to be determined.

The Institute of Medicine's daily recommendation:

Men: 120 micrograms. for men.

Women: 90 microgram for women.

Vitamin K expert, Dr. Cees Vermeer daily recommendation: 45 mcg to 185 mcg for adults.

Dr. Mercola: Unless on anticoagulant therapy, dose could be 100 mcg

Above recommendation are for vitamin K , not as K1 and K2.




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"This information proves that Vitamin K2 is a critical nutrient for patients with arteriosclerosis as it has the potential to prevent and remove calcium from arteriosclerotic plaques thus making plaques easier to dissolve and less dangerous."1


K1 & K (2menaquinone-7)

Fat absorbable also A D E

Sources: K1 in plants

K2 in animals and bacterias

Healthy colon bacteria,

Japanese natto,

Low fat Dutch gouda and

Edam cheese

Bacteria in the colon

Antibiotics and the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs kill many of these good intestinal bacteria.

Vitamin K1 was less effective than Vitamin K2 in preventing bone loss.

Vitamin K2(MK-7) is absorbed better and is 6 times more potent than Vitamin K1.

There is a lower incidence of calcification of the aorta if on long term K2 therapy.

High K2 level is associated with number of lower plaque in the arteries and more elastic are the arteries.

K2 lack causes calcium to deposit in arteries, aorta, soft tissues including muscle, breast, kidneys and in heel spurs instead of bones.

In Japan, osteoporosis is treated by K2.


"The secret to avoiding calcium-related osteoporosis and atherosclerosis

While millions of people take calcium and Vitamin D supplements thinking they're helping their bones, the truth is, without the addition of Vitamin K2, such a health regimen could prove dangerous. Without Vitamin K2, the body cannot direct calcium to the bones where it's needed; instead, the calcium resides in soft tissue (like the arteries)—leading to a combination of osteoporosis and atherosclerosis, or the dreaded "calcium paradox." This is the first book to reveal how universal a Vitamin K2 deficiency is, and the risk (in the form of cancer and diabetes, among other ailments) the absence of Vitamin K2 poses.

Written by Dr. Kate Rheaume-Bleue, a popular health expert on Canadian television and radio, Vitamin K2 and the Calcium Paradox sounds a warning about the popularity of the calcium and Vitamin D craze, while illustrating the enormous health benefits of Vitamin K2 in making the body less susceptible to dental cavities, heart disease, prostate cancer, liver cancer, diabetes, wrinkles, obesity, varicose veins, and other ailments.

  • The book demystifies this obscure supernutrient—a fat soluble vitamin that humans once thrived on, ignored by scientists for almost seventy years
  • Details how the consumption of grass-fed animals led to adequate Vitamin K2 intake—while grain-based animal feed helped eradicate Vitamin K2 from our diets
  • Describes how doctors are raising recommended doses of calcium and Vitamin D—without prescribing Vitamin K2
  • Details more damning facts about transfats—and how the creation of a synthetic Vitamin K interfered with the body's Vitamin K metabolism

An essential book for anyone interested in bone health, or maintaining their overall health, Vitamin K2 and the Calcium Paradox is the guide to taking the right combination of supplements—and adding Vitamin K2 to a daily regimen.

Vitamin K2 and the Calcium Paradox: How a Little-Known Vitamin Could Save Your Life



James Howenstine. ARTERIOSCLEROSIS CAN BE REVERSED.PART 1 of 2 July 24, 2008

Discovered from spinach leaves (folium) in 1940, hence the name.
Belongs to vitamin B coplex group B9, is an antioxidant and co-factor.
Sources: Green leafy vegetables, legumes, nuts, oranges.
Egg yolks, liver.
Breads, pasta and fortified breakfast cereals.
Functions of Folic acid.
1.Certain enzymes need folic acid as co-factor to do necessary body function and inhibit free radicals activity.
2. It is also needed by enzyme NO synthase which help synthesis of NO.
3.Along with B6 and B9, it lowers blood level the amino acid homocysteine, a risk factor for atherosclerosis and heart diseases. Homocysteine injures endothelial cells where NO is created.
At 800 mcg daily dose, blood homocysteine level fell 23 % compared to the placebo group.
This is not to confused with alpha linolenic acid, which is an omega-3 fatty acid and sometimes also abbreviated ALA.
ALA is an antioxidant and both water and fat soluble. So, it can work throughout the body.
Body makes alpha-lipoic acid and found in every cell.
Red meat, liver, yeast, particularly brewer's yeast.
It is more active in energy producing cells.
ALA neutralizes many type of free radicals.
ALA helps other antioxidant to function. As other antioxidants get exhausted as they attack free radicals, ALA comes to regenerate these antioxidants and making active again.
It can help NO production, stability and action duration.
Helps in glucose metabolism and diabetic neuropathy
It can lower BP.
Protects stroke related brain injury.
Helps vascular functioning, damage and atheroscleosis.
May help treat glaucoma.
A 5% lipoic acid cream reduced fine lines from sun damage in aging skin.
References:University of Maryland Medical Center.

Alpha-lipoic acid

Contains nutritionally important n−3 fatty acids
a) a-linolenic acid (ALA).
b) Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)
c) Decosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
All are polyunsaturated.
Fish oils
Plants oils: Flaxseed, algal and hemo.
Mammalian brains.
"......the majority of Americans are omega-3 deficient, which means most of us are losing out on healthier minds, hearts and bodies1"..
The health benefits of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids — DHA and EPA omega-3 — are the best known. These benefits were discovered in the 1970s by researchers studying the Greenland Inuit Tribe. The Greenland Inuit people consumed large amounts of fat from meat, but displayed virtually no cardiovascular disease. The high level of omega-3 fatty acids consumed by the Inuit reduced triglycerides, heart rate, blood pressure, and atherosclerosis.[6]"

"On September 8, 2004, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration gave "qualified health claim" status to EPA and DHA n−3 fatty acids, stating that "supportive but not conclusive research shows that consumption of EPA and DHA [n−3] fatty acids may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease."[7]....

The Canadian Government has recognized the importance of DHA omega-3 and permits the following biological role claim for DHA: "DHA, an omega-3 fatty acid, supports the normal development of the brain, eyes and nerves."[8].....

Omega-3 blood levels are considered deficient at 5% and below. Health omega-3 levels start at 6% with optimum levels between 8%-9%.
Benefits of omega 3

Heart Health

Heart Health Many extensive medical studies show that Omega-3 fish oils are good for overall heart and cardiovascular health 1-20.  Omega-3 also supports healthy triglyceride levels 21-23 and is recommended by both The American Heart Association and The National Institutes of Health (NIH). CoQ10 has also been shown to support heart health.* 24,25
Brain Health

Slow cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease

Prenatal and Children’s Health
Joint Health & Mobility"

Improve insulin metabolism and blood sugar balance

Help prevent asthma

Reduce overall systemic inflammation (a major driving factor of all chronic illness today)



Omega Quant HS-Omega-3 Index Test
This is a self test.
For more information: CAD diet recent advances
1 These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease."
^ Dyerberg J, Bang HO, Hjorne N (1975). "Fatty acid composition of the plasma lipids in Greenland Eskimos". Am J Clin Nutr 28 (9): 958–66. PMID 1163480
  • ^ a b "FDA announces qualified health claims for omega-3 fatty acids"
    (Press release). United States Food and Drug Administration. September 8, 2004. Retrieved 2006-07-10.
  • ^ Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Summary Table of Biological Role Claims Table 8-2.

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